The tragedy of young Israeli Arabs on the road to nowhere (2023)

When Samer Massawra finished high school, he felt lost. “I found myself without a guiding hand,” he says. “Many of my friends started working and I also wanted a little money, to have some independence. But I couldn’t find work, and the jobs I did get weren’t right for me.”

Massawra, 20, of Taibeh, is part of a growing trend of young Israeli Arabs classified as “idle,” or NEET – neither in employment nor in education or training. The state comptroller’s report that was released on Tuesday found that almost a third (29 percent) of Arabs in Israel aged 18-24 are idle, twice as many as the OECD average. Their number stands at some 57,000 young people – 22,000 men and 35,000 women.

'I too found mainly jobs involving physical labor, and we didn’t really get paid for it because we’re young.'

Most of his friends are employed in jobs demanding hard physical labor like construction, renovations, or gardening. He is unemployed.
Nobody holds onto physical work at this age,” he says. “I too found mainly jobs involving physical labor, and we didn’t really get paid for it because we’re young. Afterward I worked in the supermarket as a stock clerk, through a personnel contractor, but the pay was low so that I left. I don’t know any non-profit or organization that helps guide young people from my community. Nobody helped me or my friends.”

Odai Jaradat, 22, from northern Israel, had plans to study. He recently stopped studying for his contracting diploma, however, despite having high grades.

“At first I worked and studied, but it was very difficult for me to do both things together, so I stopped studying,” he says. “Then I became lazy, because I didn’t have any incentive or pressure, and stopped working.”

A man walks in Jisr al-Zarqa, this week.Credit: Amir Levy

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Jaradat didn’t have many options, he says. He had a few occasional jobs, but never a regular one.

“I looked a lot,” he says. “I was rejected a few times. At a certain stage I worked as a cleaner in a supermarket, as a contract worker – physical work, no benefits, for 26 shekels ($7) an hour. I felt I wasn’t getting anything in return, that I was being used.

“Many places hire only people who have served in the military,” Jaradat says. “Most places want professionals or people with experience, even in sales or customer service. But if you finish high school and you’re just beginning to look for work, how can you be experienced?”

'Had someone given me direction, I’d have a profession by now, but I don’t blame my family. They have enough on their hands.'

Like Massawra, Jaradat feels he had no one to guide him after finishing high school. “I had to work,” he says. “We were six brothers at home, some of them small, and my parents couldn’t pay for me after school. I wanted a driver’s license, so I found a temporary job. After I got my license, I stopped working for a long time, and then I found something else, and then stopped again.”

Compared to the Arab community, the rate of young Jewish Israelis who are not working or studying is much smaller – 14 percent among men and 17 percent among women in 2021. The comptroller’s report says the disparity stems from the “natural, prescribed path” that young Jewish Israelis have after high school.


They’re expected to go to the military or national service, or to study in a yeshiva. The Arab community has no such predetermined course, bringing the rate of “idle” Arab young adults to a much higher level of 25 percent among men and 34 percent among women.

The report states that the disparity in this rate between young Arab men and young Jewish men is growing over time. It increased from 6 percent at the beginning of 2015 to 11 percent at the end of 2021.

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Jaradat, who isn’t working or studying at the moment, says the situation would have been different had he had a family and institutional support. “Had someone given me direction, I’d have a profession by now, but I don’t blame my family,” he says. “They have enough on their hands.

“Many of my friends don’t work, or like me, work temporary odd jobs,” Jaradat says. “I know some of them are already involved in crime, because they didn’t find something to do after school. At that age, the road to crime is already paved for you, especially if you don’t have a place of employment or decent salary.”

Indeed, the report says that between 2015 and 2021, the crime rate among young Arabs rose by some 50 percent, from 0.1 criminal cases per capita to 0.15, an increase of some 6,000 cases. The numbers of murders and shooting incidents also went up. As of this week, after the murder of 24-year-old Hanan Abu Hait, 72 Arab citizens have been murdered since the beginning of the year.

Jisr al-Zarqa, this month.Credit: Amir Levy

The report says that studies have shown positive correlation between a lack of work or school and criminality. One possible explanation is that young Arabs often feel less of a sense of belonging in society, which is exacerbated when they don’t have a path forward. Joining a crime organization might alleviate that feeling of alienation for some. Poverty also encourages them to turn to crime, as a way of making easy money.

“There’s a close link between young adults who aren’t studying or employed and the rise in crime in the Arab community, especially in the participation of young Arabs in criminal acts,” says Nasreen Haddad Haj-Yahya, a partner at the Portland Trust, a non-profit dedicated to promoting opportunity for disadvantaged community groups, and at NAS Research & Consulting.

“Crime organizations recruit our young people into dark worlds,” she says. “It must be understood that the young people find themselves in the crime world against their will, because they have nowhere else to go. Instead of talking about ‘governance in the Negev,’ we must talk about creating hope for young Arab people, because they’re an asset, not a burden.

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“They’re a part of society that the state must help realize its potential and integrate into society in the best way,” Haj-Yahya says. “It’s not supposed to be only the Arab community’s interest. Otherwise, we’ll all pay a high price for this neglect.”

The comptroller’s report discusses this explicitly. The potential economic loss is estimated at a billion shekels a year. But out of the some 34 billion shekels ($9.4 billion) that have been allocated for the Arab community’s benefit, less than half a billion – a little over 1 percent – has been earmarked for dealing with young adults who aren’t working or studying.

“The government’s foot-dragging in funneling resources will only make the phenomenon grow and deepen the disparities between Arabs and Jews,” says Haj-Yahya.

Options are very few

“I was engaged at 18, right at the end of high school, and couldn’t really work because at 19 I was already married,” says L., a young woman from Kalansua. Early marriage prevents many young women in the Arab community from continuing to higher education or joining the labor market, she says. A large proportion of her high school friends also got married at the ages of 17-20, she says.

Her husband, who makes a relatively good living, forbade her from working outside the home. “My parents also didn’t want me to work at a young age, but they agreed in principle to my working as long as it was in the city itself,” she says.

She was unsuccessful when she looked for a suitable job for a while, mainly because of low pay. “I sent my resume to loads of places, nobody got back to me,” she says. “Many places prefer men, or women with experience or a profession. The only place I found in town was as a saleswoman in a clothing store for 3,000 shekels ($830) a month.

Jisr al-Zarqa, this month.Credit: Amir Levy

“If I find a good job with decent pay, after my husband agrees, I’ll work,” L. says. “I hope to find something, because I really want to work, but the options are very few. In most places the pay is very low, and that reduces the motivation.”

The problem of limited work options arose in conversation with all the interviewees. A report by the Youth Authority (part of the Welfare and Social Affairs Ministry) and the Israel Democracy Institute looked into the distribution of Arab young adults by occupation and field. It found that they are employed less in administrative and academic positions compared to Jewish counterparts, and that the same held true for clerical and sales positions.

According to the report, in 2021 36 percent of Arab young adults were working in administrative, academic, white collar, and technical professions, compared to 57 percent of Jews. Twenty-two percent were working in clerical, sales, and service positions, compared to 26.6 percent of Jewish young adults.

When it comes to manual labor, the ratio reverses significantly. Among Jewish young adults, only 8.4 percent were employed as skilled laborers, and 2.7 percent were employed as unskilled laborers. Meanwhile, 29.5 percent of Arab young adults were employed as skilled manual laborers, and 7.1 percent as unskilled laborers.

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According to the comptroller’s report, the solutions offered by the state in an attempt to reduce the problem are not necessarily effective, and in any case are far from sufficient. These solutions include the Rayan Centers, a network of centers offering employment guidance for the Arab community, and programs offering a “transfer year,” similar to the model of a year of national service and pre-military prep schools for Jewish young adults.

“There is importance in bringing the youth to programs like [the transfer year], says Sina Mansour, a director at Rian Centers. But, she adds, “One program can’t treat the massive rate of ‘idleness.’ We need to act to make sure budgets allocated for the matter are delivered, and to implement the programs.”

And indeed, according to the comptroller’s report, the various transfer year programs can provide a response to only three percent of all the ‘idle’ young adults in the Arab community. Furthermore, their high cost, 25,000 shekels from the state budget per participant, won’t allow for expansion.

The Hebrew barrier

One of the most significant obstacles facing young Arabs, according to the report, is a lack of command of Hebrew. This problem prevents them from passing language exams and gaining admission to university.

To Ziyad Awida, a resident of the north, the language barrier was the most severe problem he faced. “I finished high school without knowing Hebrew,” he says. “I’m not ashamed of it, the problem was with the school. They didn’t invest in teaching us everyday Hebrew. At the end of school, I suddenly found myself having to study or work, but I couldn’t hold a conversation in Hebrew. It planted a lot of fears in me.”

Awida remained in his hometown and contented himself with work that he found there. The sums he earned, he says, weren’t even enough for cigarettes. “There was nobody to take care of us once school ended, to give us professional guidance,” he says. “Nobody checked whether I could speak Hebrew or not, they didn’t make sure I could at least hold a conversation. As a schoolboy, you have no idea how critical it is to know Hebrew for work and school later.”

Many young Arabs end up going to universities outside of Israel. According to the comptroller’s report, in 2018, some 15,000 Israeli Arabs studied outside of Israel, including 8,000 in the West Bank (of whom slightly over 6,000 were studying in Jenin). Such, says Awida, was the case with his cousin, who went to Jenin to study because of the language barrier.

But the cousin’s options are still limited, according to Awida. “He has a degree, but he still doesn’t speak Hebrew, and when you have no command of the language, you can’t find a good job in Israel,” he says. “I feel that this situation is taking me backward. I haven’t worked for two years. I’m living off my parents. I haven’t advanced a single meter in life.”

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Who won the 1948 Arab Israeli war? ›

1948 Arab–Israeli War
Date15 May 1948 – 10 March 1949 (9 months, 3 weeks and 2 days)
LocationFormer British Mandate of Palestine, Sinai Peninsula, southern Lebanon
ResultIsraeli victory Partial Jordanian victory Palestinian Arab defeat Egyptian defeat Arab League strategic failure 1949 Armistice Agreements
1 more row

What percentage of Israeli citizens are Arab? ›

Population groupSize% of total Israeli population
Of which: Arab citizens of Israel1,595,30017.20%
1 more row
Mar 17, 2022

What events led to the dispute between Israel and its Arab neighbors? ›

What events led to the dispute between Israel and its Arab neighbors? After the Holocaust in World War II, the United Nations suggested that Palestine split into Jewish and Arab States. Arabs saw this as an act of betrayal.

What percentage of Israel population is Palestinian? ›

After the war, around 150,000 Palestinians remained inside of what became Israel's internationally recognized borders. Today, there are approximately 1.6 million Palestinian citizens of Israel, comprising about 20% of the total Israeli population.

Why did the Arabs invade Israel in 1948? ›

The goal of the Arabs was initially to block the Partition Resolution and to prevent the establishment of the Jewish state. The Jews, on the other hand, hoped to gain control over the territory allotted to them under the Partition Plan.

How many people died in the Arab Israeli war in 1948? ›

11–12 July 1948Lydda250-1700 civilians
28 October 1948Al-Dawayima massacre, Hebron80 to 200 Arab men, women and children.
29 October 1948Safsaf massacre, Safed52-70 Arab villagers killed.
30 October 1948Saliha, Safed60 - 70 Arab men and women killed after surrendering.
20 more rows

What is the majority race in Israel? ›

Demographics of Israel
Major ethnicJews, Arabs
Minor ethnicDruze, Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Circassians, Samaritans
24 more rows

What nationality are Israeli Arabs? ›

The Arab citizens of Israel are the largest ethnic minority in the country. They comprise a hybrid community of Israeli citizens with a heritage of Palestinian citizenship, mixed religions (Muslim, Christian or Druze), bilingual in Arabic and Hebrew, and with varying social identities.

Which Arab countries like Israel? ›

Israel maintains full diplomatic relations with two of its Arab neighbours, Egypt and Jordan, after signing peace treaties in 1979 and 1994 respectively.

Why did the Arab countries refuse to recognize Israel? ›

Additionally, many non-recognizing countries have challenged Israel's existence — predominantly those in the Muslim world — due to significant animosity stemming from the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the Arab–Israeli conflict.

What was the first Arab country to normalize relations with Israel? ›

The UAE thus became the third Arab country, after Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994, to agree to formally normalize its relationship with Israel, as well as the first Persian Gulf country to do so.

What are the three main causes of the Arab Israeli conflict? ›

To summarise, having analysed Zionism, Arab nationalism and British foreign policy as three key causes of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, as well as three major consequences of the war, this essay can conclude that the 1948 Arab-Israeli war was a highly complex conflict with its origins going as far back as biblical times.

Where is the largest Palestinian population in USA? ›

The New York City Metropolitan Area, including North Jersey and Brooklyn, is home to the largest Palestinian population in the United States.

Which religion is growing in Israel? ›

And while Muslim population growth has waned over the past two decades, it is still the fastest-growing population sector in Israel.

What percentage of Israel is Hebrew? ›

Today, Hebrew is the official language used in government, commerce, court sessions, schools, and universities. It is the language most commonly used in everyday life in Israel. Native Hebrew speakers comprise about 53% of the population.

How many countries did Israel defeat in the Bible? ›

The Seven Nations (Hebrew: שבעת העמים, romanized: Shivat Ha'amim) are seven nations that according to the Hebrew Bible lived in the Land of Canaan prior to the arrival of the Israelites. God instructed the Israelites to destroy these seven nations upon entering Canaan.

What makes Israel so powerful? ›

“For its relatively small size, the country has played a large role in global affairs,” it said. “The country has a strong economy, landmarks of significance to several religions, and strained relationships with many of its Arab neighbors.”

Why are Arab armies so ineffective? ›

Poor tactics, poor leadership and a litany of other failures have held back the armed forces of most Arab countries. Even when they win, they lose. So miserable was the performance of Arab armed forces during the last century that even a few examples of victories tended to be defeats in one respect or another.

What was the massacre of the Palestinians by Israel? ›

What is the Deir Yassin massacre? On April 9, 1948, just weeks before the creation of the State of Israel, members of the Irgun and Stern Gang Zionist militias attacked the village of Deir Yassin, killing at least 107 Palestinians.

What was the Arab massacre in Israel? ›

The Deir Yassin massacre took place on April 9, 1948, when around 130 fighters from the Zionist paramilitary groups Irgun and Lehi killed at least 107 Palestinian Arab villagers, including women and children, in Deir Yassin, a village of roughly 600 people near Jerusalem, despite having earlier agreed to a peace pact.

Why did the Arabs lose the 1948 war? ›

Disunited, Arabs fall

Another factor that contributed to the 1948 defeat was inter-Arab political rivalries. While Arab leaders claimed to be fighting for Palestine, they were also engaged in a war of interests in which the warring parties had different agendas and often conflicting goals.

What are the 12 races of Israel? ›

The tribes were named after Jacob's sons and grandsons. They were Asher, Dan, Ephraim, Gad, Issachar, Manasseh, Naphtali, Reuben, Simeon, Zebulun, Judah and Benjamin.

What is the average age in Israel? ›

Median age of the population in Israel 2020

In 2020, the median age of the population of Israel was 29 years.

How many Americans live in Israel? ›

There are an estimated 184,000 Americans living in Israel.

There are many great reasons for living in Israel – faith, heritage, history, culture, and the amazing beaches to name but a few.

Do Arabs in Israel speak Hebrew? ›

Today the majority of Arab Israelis, who constitute over a fifth of the Israeli population, speak Hebrew fluently, as a second language.

Do Palestinians have rights in Israel? ›

Most Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories live under Israeli occupation and are not Israeli citizens. They are not allowed to vote in Israel. Women faced significant cultural barriers in political parties representing conservative religious movements and, to a lesser degree, the Arab minority.

Can an Arab go to Israel? ›

Israel allows tourists from every single nation, even those that do not recognize Israel. Every nationality is allowed to enter Israel, but some need a visa approved in advance.

Who was the first country to recognize Israel? ›

The United States prides itself on being the first country to recognize Israel as an independent state on May 14, 1948. Read more on how the U.S.-Israel relationship counters Iran and promotes regional stability: Shuaib Zia and 2,980 others like this.

Does Turkey recognize Israel? ›

Although it had voted against the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, Turkey recognized the State of Israel in 1949.

Does Russia support Israel? ›

Russia supports two-state solution for Israeli–Palestinian conflict and has relations with several Palestinian political parties. Russia does not consider Hamas as a terrorist organization and continues to diplomatically negotiate with them.

Why does Iran not Recognise Israel? ›

After the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Iran severed all diplomatic and commercial ties with Israel, and its theocratic government does not recognize the legitimacy of Israel as a state.

Why doesn t Saudi recognize Israel? ›

As part of the Arab–Israeli conflict, Saudi Arabia has not recognized Israel since the latter's independence in 1948. Traditionally, the official Saudi policy towards the Israeli–Palestinian conflict has been supportive of the Palestinian Arabs and against Israel.

Why Pakistan not accept Israel? ›

Pakistan's religiously-oriented political parties such as Jamaat-e-Islami and militant groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba fiercely oppose any relationship with Israel, and have repeatedly called for the destruction of Israel due to its standing as an alleged sworn enemy of Pakistan.

When did Egypt recognize Israel? ›

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Which countries support Israel? ›

Status of diplomatic relations with Israel:
Status of Diplomatic RelationsCountry
YesThe United Arab Emirates8
YesMarshall Islands11
157 more rows
Feb 15, 2023

Does Qatar Recognise Israel? ›

Until 2009, Qatar and Israel maintained diplomatic and financial relations, but due to Operation Cast Lead, Qatar broke ties with Israel. Since then there have been no diplomatic relations though there have been other links.

What is the two state solution for the Arab Israeli conflict? ›

History of the two-state solution

Partition was again proposed by the 1947 UN Partition plan for the division of Palestine. It proposed a three-way division, again with Jerusalem held separately, under international control. The partition plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership.

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Modern Israel has its origins in the Zionism movement, established in the late 19th century by Jews in the Russian Empire who called for the establishment of a territorial Jewish state after enduring persecution.

Why do Israel and Palestine fight? ›

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What is the average age in Palestine? ›

the State of Palestine ranks number 121 in the list of countries (and dependencies) by population. The population density in the State of Palestine is 847 per Km2 (2,195 people per mi2). The median age in the State of Palestine is 20.8 years.

Can a Palestinian live in Israel? ›

Today, about 362,000 Palestinians in East Jerusalem hold this status. Permanent residency grants them many of the same rights as Israeli citizenship, including the ability to live, work, and travel freely within Israel, as well as access to health insurance and social services.

What was the majority ethnic group in Palestine? ›

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What religion was Jesus? ›

He was born of a Jewish mother, in Galilee, a Jewish part of the world. All of his friends, associates, colleagues, disciples, all of them were Jews. He regularly worshipped in Jewish communal worship, what we call synagogues. He preached from Jewish text, from the Bible.

Who is Israel in Bible? ›

Because Jacob was faithful, the Lord gave him the special name of Israel, which means “one who prevails with God” or “let God prevail” (Bible Dictionary, “Israel,” 708). Jacob had twelve sons. These sons and their families became known as the twelve tribes of Israel, or Israelites (see Genesis 49:28).

What is the fastest growing religion in the United States? ›

According to various scholars and sources Pentecostalism – a Protestant Christian movement – is the fastest growing religion in the world, this growth is primarily due to religious conversion. According to Pulitzer Center 35,000 people become Pentecostal or "Born again" every day.

What language did Jesus speak? ›

Aramaic is best known as the language Jesus spoke. It is a Semitic language originating in the middle Euphrates. In 800-600 BC it spread from there to Syria and Mesopotamia. The oldest preserved inscriptions are from this period and written in Old Aramaic.

Did Israel win the 1948 war? ›

The Israeli victory in 1948 can also be attributed to the international support Israel received, notably the Balfour Declaration of 1917, in which the British promised to support the Zionist cause of establishing a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine.

Who lost the Arab-Israeli war? ›

Six-Day War
Date5–10 June 1967 (6 days)
LocationMiddle East
ResultIsraeli victory
Territorial changesIsrael captures and occupies the Golan Heights from Syria, the West Bank (incl. East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt

Who won the Arab-Israeli? ›

The Six-Day War ended with Israel capturing the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem.

Which countries voted against Israel in 1948? ›

Seven votes in favor were required in order to approve the application. Syria was the sole negative vote; the U.S., Argentina, Colombia, the Soviet Union and Ukraine voted in favor; and Belgium, Britain, Canada, China and France abstained. Israel's application was renewed in 1949 after the Israeli elections.

What did Israel do to Palestine in 1948? ›

One of the two envisaged States proclaimed its independence as Israel and in the 1948 war involving neighbouring Arab States expanded to 77 percent of the territory of mandate Palestine, including the larger part of Jerusalem. Over half of the Palestinian Arab population fled or were expelled.

How many times was Israel destroyed? ›

This is a timeline of major events in the history of Jerusalem; a city that had been fought over sixteen times in its history. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.

What was the biggest Arab Israeli war? ›

The Six-Day War began with a preemptive Israeli air assault in Egypt and Syria. An Israeli ground offensive was also launched in the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank. These territories were all captured by Israel, though the Sinai Peninsula was later returned to Egypt.

Which Arab states attacked Israel? ›

The first war (1948–49) began when Israel declared itself an independent state following the United Nations' partition of Palestine. Protesting this move, five Arab countries—Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria—attacked Israel.

Has Egypt ever won against Israel? ›

The Israelis felt defeated by the Egyptian victory of Oct. 6, 1973. It wasn't just a defeat in battle but defeat in the face of the biggest threat to its existence in its 25 years of being.

Can an Arab vote in Israel? ›

Although there are still efforts to limit their political power, such as right-wing lawmakers' attempts to ban Arab parties from elections, Arab parties currently hold ten seats in the Knesset. Arabs have sat on the Supreme Court and worked in the foreign service, with a handful serving as ambassadors since 1995.

How many Arabs expelled from Israel? ›

During the 1948 Palestine war in which the State of Israel was established, around 700,000 Palestinian Arabs or 85% of the total population of the territory Israel captured fled or were expelled from their homes by Israeli forces.

Who is Israel's best friend? ›

Israel's close friendship with the United States has been a linchpin of its foreign policy since the establishment of the state.

Which religion is majority in Israel? ›

While most Israelis are Jewish, a growing share (currently about one-in-five adults) belong to other groups. Most non-Jewish residents of Israel are ethnically Arab and identify, religiously, as Muslims, Christians or Druze.

Why did Britain give Palestine to Israel? ›

In 1917, in order to win Jewish support for Britain's First World War effort, the British Balfour Declaration promised the establishment of a Jewish national home in Ottoman-controlled Palestine.


1. Palestine 1920: The Other Side of the Palestinian Story | Al Jazeera World Documentary
(Al Jazeera English)
2. Israel - Birth of a state | DW Documentary
(DW Documentary)
3. A Deep Dive Inside the Israel/Palestine Conflict
(VICE News)
4. Israel: A Nation is Born - Part 1
(Frank Markow)
5. The Battle for Jerusalem in May 1948
6. Netanyahu at War (full documentary) | FRONTLINE
(FRONTLINE PBS | Official)


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